Fecha de publicación: 27/09/2019
Fuente: WIPO Agriculture Portada
Human activities all over the earth have increased environmental pollution by heavy metals and other pollutants in soil and produced huge quantity of polluted waste water. Phytoremediation is a new technology in which plants are used to remove pollutants from soil. The use of pollutant and metal-accumulating plants to clean environment contaminated with heavy metals is the most rapidly developing component of this environmentally friendly and cost-effective technology.The ever-increasing environmental pollution in agricultural soil caused by pollutants and heavy metals due to application of industrial waste water, sewage sludge, city refuse, and heavy metals containing fertilizers or pesticides, is becoming a major problem in present time. Due to rapid and uncontrolled industrialization and anthropogenic activities in Kota, the environmental pollution increased rapidly. The discharge of waste water from industries such as stone, chemical, fertilizers, Textile etc. pollute soil flora fauna. Quality of soil is degrading day by day and activities are adversely affected. Agriculture is depending upon many factors like physical, chemical, phenomenon of water and soil. If the crop production will reduced then the country"s growing population will face food shortage in the upcoming days. The over exploitation and pollution of the soil and water, yield of the crops and fertility of soil reduces. In this report various locations have been identified and pollution level of soil at the vicinity of Kota has been measured. The present study is dealing with Assessment of effluent contaminated or irrigated soil and characterization of these in order to find out the physiological loads put in by the effluent generated from industries in Kota region of Rajasthan. This study will also help to find out the impacts of effluents on corresponding soil and water ecology. A survey before quantification and treatment study has been carried out to find out the strength of problem in many areas of Kota and the site has been selected as where the problem was acute and may causes problem to human and other living organism. The selected locations were mostly nearby the major industrial area of Kota. Raipura is near to many small scale industries, and this area is frequently facing the problem of Kota stone slurry effluents. Ranpur is well known industrial and educational area of Kota however the problem due to institute were very less but the agro based park in industrial area creating nuisance to environment. The effluents from these industries were full of oil and grease, having high BOD, COD loads. The area were also facing the problem of odour, the main industries of this areas is Shiv Shakti oil, Om oils, and many seed processing industry as well as with stone cutting industry. InBundi regions touching the boundary of Kota also many soya been plants are situated Ruchi soya oil is main industry settled here. Multi metals industry, Om metal is settled in Chambal industrial area which is dealing in the metal processing making metallic parts of machinery. The effluents and affected soils were also loaded with metallic pollutants. Indraprastha industrial area is full of with stone cutting Units.Selection of native plants for treatment work also accompanied with the survey of various wetlands of Kota as well as detail review of literature .the plants selected for the study on the basis of survival in local conditions and growth pattern. The plants selected for soil treatment were new as a phytoremidiator and selected after primary results obtain from experiment for their removal capacity and with consultation of scientist of CSIR laboratory in Lucknow known as National botanical research institute. Also suggestion and references were taken from scientist of Ministry of Environment and Forest, govt. of India and National Environmental Engineering Institute, Nagpur.The research study has been divided in two main part first is assessment second is treatment of contamination for soil in Kota region. The treatment schedule has partitioned in four parts using four types of plants from December 2014 to November 2015, soil is treated with four different plants for duration of 3 month up to 12 month so the total number of 4 phytoremidiator used here is for soil decontamination.The industrial effluents which are contaminating the soil as the industrial effluents in Kota found passing through the agriculture areas where the intensive agriculture activities is carried out by farmers. The agriculture area extensively affected by the industrial waste water especially in rainy season the flow of slurry waste water in raipura region of Kota become a serious problem and become a flooded area with waste water. In Raipur region where the effluent is passing through the agriculture farmland this land observed heavily contaminated with the heavy metals. during the observation it has been found that the value of metal like copper are found up to a danger limit as it is noticed here about 69 ppm in soil which is contaminated with Multi-metals industry waste water, also more than the permissible limit which is about 2 ppm. So this value is more 35 times than the permissible limit which leads to the Bio magnification in local crop, leads to various disease in human as well as animals. Out of 32 samples most of the samples observed more than the permissible limit of pollutant declared by BIS India. Iron content recorded maximum 31.08 ppm in soil sample sewage treatment plants of Dhakadkhedi Kota, this soil is contaminated with waste water which is flowing towards to STP. Zn reached up to 22.91 ppm in soil sample of Raipura also more than 39 times the permissible limit of .6 ppm. Mn observed maximum in Multi-metals soil samples as it is known that multi-metal is metallic parts manufacturing unit in Kota so the effluent is laden with more metallic content. Thus with all this observation it is cleared that soil is badly affected due to industrial effluent in study area. Organic pollutant like phosphate, OC, etc. also found more than the approved limit of various organization however this pollutant loads beneficial for agriculture purpose but excess amount of this leads bio magnification in crops.phosphate,potash, sulphur were recorded in soil serially 825 kg/hect,6440 kg/hect,878 kg/Hect in soil samples of Sanjhdheda, Ranpur Industrial, Multi-Metals area soil. This high amount of pollutants in soil causes various problems in crop and soil flora &fauna.After the characterization of soil parameters the decontamination of soil done by selected four phytoremidiator plants throughout the year. 3 month span has taken for soil treatment by each plant which cover whole year for soil decontamination. Each plant for 3 month applied for four most contaminated samples from 8 samples which means out of 32 sample total 16 highest contaminated soil has been treated. The highest reduction of pollutants serially shown by Marigold, Helianthus anus, zinnia elegance, dahliapinnata plant which reduce about 70-85 % of heavy metals from the contaminated soil matrix. The soil sample has been tested every 10th days up to 2 month after first observation on 30th day. Plants selected here for decontamination found also suitable for removal of organic component as these pollutants assimilated by plant as food. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn also serve as micronutrient but here they found in too much high range more than the permissible limit set by FAO, USA and BIS India.The phytoremidiator plants has germinated in contaminated soil for better treatment process as the seedling require more amount of nutrient to grow and for survival. the 5 pots were filled with same amount of contaminated soil and each pot were filled with 1 kg of soil and same count of seeds in each pots to see the similar result in all. The filled pots with seedlings will start harvested after 30 days of germination and after that at every 10 days slot they were tested upto 60 days.The assessment of different pollutant load in soil due to industrial effluents in Kota gives the alarming signal because most of samples were found full of toxic and hazardous pollutant also many times greater than the permissible standard set by BIS of India and FAO, USA.In the samples of waste water the toxic element like cadmium lead & chromium were also observed more than the many times of permissible limit, whose merely presence in the environment is sufficient to health hazardous. In soil samples the excess amount of organic as well as inorganic element has been observed which generally leads to bio magnifications. Due to this mechanism these hazardous element can enter in our food chain as different crops, vegetation grown on contaminated soil matrix are directly accumulated the toxic metals. Which further enter in our foods or enter into grazing is clear from above point the main source of these contamination is unregulated industrial process which generates great burden of pollutant, also the industries in Kota were not well equipped with a better quality treatment facility however there are some work is also going on development of CETP in Sanjhidheda area of Kota, Till the writing of my researrch work has been start over there. The criteria were observed by different phytoremidator used for decontamination of soil, however the decontamination of pollutants has obtained near or a permissible limit given by various standard agencies soil can further used for non-potable use as well. Further research work also needed for development of natural remidiator for different kind of pollution; also we can enhance the efficiency using genetic engineering. The application of genetic engineering is capable to enhance the natural solar driven clean up tools.