Impact of Silicon on Plant Nutrition and Significance of Silicon Mobilizing Bacteria in Agronomic Practices

Fecha de publicación: 26/01/2023
Fuente: Broccoli Byproducts Extraction
Globally, rejuvenation of soil health is a major concern due to the continuous loss of soil fertility and productivity. Soil degradation decreases crop yields and threatens global food security. Improper use of chemical fertilizers coupled with intensive cultivation further reduces both soil health and crop yields. Plants require several nutrients in varying ratios that are essential for the plant to complete a healthy growth and development cycle. Soil, water, and air are the sources of these essential macro- and micro-nutrients needed to complete plant vegetative and reproductive cycles. Among the essential macro-nutrients, nitrogen (N) plays a significant in non-legume species and without sufficient plant access to N lower yields result. While silicon (Si) is the 2nd most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and is the backbone of soil silicate minerals, it is an essential micro-nutrient for some plants. Silicon is just beginning to be recognized as an important micronutrient to some plant species and, while it is quite abundant, Si is often not readily available for plant uptake. The manufacturing cost of synthetic silica-based fertilizers is high, while absorption of silica is quite slow in soil for many plants. Rhizosphere biological weathering processes includes microbial solubilization processes that increase the dissolution of minerals and increases Si availability for plant uptake. Therefore, an important strategy to improve plant silicon uptake could be field application of Si-solubilizing bacteria. In this review, we evaluate the role of Si in seed germination, growth, and morphological development and crop yield under various biotic and abiotic stresses, different pools and fluxes of silicon (Si) in soil, and the bacterial genera of the silicon solubilizing microorganisms. We also elaborate on the detailed mechanisms of Si-solubilizing/mobilizing bacteria involved in silicate dissolution and uptake by a plant in soil. Last, we discuss the potential of silicon and silicon solubilizing/mobilizing to achieve environmentally friendly and sustainable crop production.