Recycling municipal, agricultural and industrial waste into energy, fertilizers, food and construction materials, and economic feasibility: a review

Fecha de publicación: 01/04/2023
Fuente: Citrus Byproducts Extraction
The global amount of solid waste has dramatically increased as a result of rapid population growth, accelerated urbanization, agricultural demand, and industrial development. The world's population is expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030, while solid waste production will reach 2.59 billion tons. This will deteriorate the already strained environment and climate situation. Consequently, there is an urgent need for methods to recycle solid waste. Here, we review recent technologies to treat solid waste, and we assess the economic feasibility of transforming waste into energy. We focus on municipal, agricultural, and industrial waste. We found that methane captured from landfilled-municipal solid waste in Delhi could supply 8–18 million houses with electricity and generate 7140 gigawatt-hour, with a prospected potential of 31,346 and 77,748 gigawatt-hour by 2030 and 2060, respectively. Valorization of agricultural solid waste and food waste by anaerobic digestion systems could replace 61.46% of natural gas and 38.54% of coal use in the United Kingdom, and could reduce land use of 1.8 million hectares if provided as animal feeds. We also estimated a levelized cost of landfill solid and anaerobic digestion waste-to-energy technologies of $0.04/kilowatt-hour and $0.07/kilowatt-hour, with a payback time of 0.73–1.86 years and 1.17–2.37 years, respectively. Nonetheless, current landfill waste treatment methods are still inefficient, in particular for treating food waste containing over 60% water.